Rpi Config

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Installing OS on MicroSD Card

  1. Download image from raspberrypi.org downloads page.
  2. Insert a (4GB+) SD Card using card reader into computer.
  3. Use gparted to format the entire disk as FAT32 (FAT16 will not work!).
  4. Open ImageWriter(GUI) & select the image file (example 2012-10-28-wheezy-raspbian.img).
  5. Click the Write button (ignore the error for smaller image size & larger card space).

Dual boot with NOOBS

  • Use a format tool like Gparted to format the SD card as FAT32 (FAT16 will not work!)
  • Download Noobs Offline version
  • Dump the contents of the .ZIP file onto your SD card
  • Safely eject the card, place it in powered down Raspberry Pi’s SD card slot, and power the system up.
  • Once initialization is done, NOOBS wizard will appear.
  • Check Disk space portion of the wizard’s display.
  • After making selections, simply click the install button or press I on your keyboard:
  • Once the process is finished, you can boot right into your installed operating systems.
  • On each subsequent startup, a 10 second window will appear to select your OS before it boots into the last-used operating system.


First Boot into Raspbian

Managing Raspberry Pi with/without Keyboard or Mouse:

  1. Install Raspian(as explained above).
  2. Insert SD Card, LAN Cable/WIFI Adapter, Power cable, HDMI/RCA cable for video.
  3. Keyboard & Mouse are helpful, but optional.
  4. Use NMAP or Wifi DHCP IP List to find out IP assigned to PI.
  5. Connect using pi:raspberry credentials.
  6. Run sudo raspi-config
  7. Choose Boot into desktop mode option.
  8. Reboot
  9. Update the distro:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade


Install VNC Server

   Ambox notice.png     This method will create a new virtual desktop. If you want to access the first desktop itself(:0), refer below X11 method.
sudo apt-get install tightvncserver

Now run the vncserver to finish the setup:

vncserver
cd /home/pi
cd .config
mkdir autostart
cd autostart
nano tightvnc.desktop

paste following text:

[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Name=TightVNC
Exec=vncserver :1
StartupNotify=false

X11 VNC

The above VNC access will create a new virtual desktop. If you want to access the first desktop itself(:0), use the following method:

sudo apt-get install x11vnc
x11vnc -storepasswd

create autostart entry

cd .config
mkdir autostart
cd autostart
nano x11vnc.desktop

paste following text:

[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Type=Application
Name=X11VNC
Comment=
Exec=x11vnc -forever -usepw -display :0 -ultrafilexfer
StartupNotify=false
Terminal=false
Hidden=false

save and reboot

XRDP

Source: raspberrypiblog.com

   Paste.png     This section is under construction.

Change Root Password

sudo raspi-config

Adding new User

sudo adduser username
sudo leafpad /etc/sudoers.

Leafpad will load the Sudoers file. Under the heading

# User Privilege specification

add the following text:

username ALL=(ALL) ALL


TimeZone

By default, debian will come up in UTC. To make it reflect the time where you are -

sudo raspi-config
select change_timezone

Verify NTP:

ntpq -p


Hardcoding Display Resolution

Source: weblogs.asp.net

If your HDMI display is not switched on at pi bootup, the display resolution is set to a very low value.
You have to reboot the pi so that a correct resolution is selected at boot up.
You can resolve this issue by hard-coding the resolution as follow:

  • Get the list of what’s supported by your monitor:
tvservice -d edid
edidparser edid
  • Similar to following output will appear(along with several other lines):
HDMI:EDID best score mode is now DMT (39) 1360x768p @ 60 Hz with pixel clock 85 MHz (score 5188004)
HDMI:EDID preferred mode remained as DMT (39) 1360x768p @ 60 Hz with pixel clock 85 MHz
  • Edit the config file:
sudo nano /boot/config.txt
  • Find the section about HDMI, uncomment it and set the right group and mode.
    If your mode description contains “DMT” the group is 2 and if it is “CEA” group is 1:
hdmi_force_hotplug=1
hdmi_group=2
hdmi_mode=39
  • Save and Reboot Pi.


Changing Keyboard Layout

Edit the following file:

sudo nano /etc/default/keyboard

Find where it says

XKBLAYOUT=”gb”

Change the "gb" to "us" or the two letter code for your country.

Remove Clutter

Remove Wolfram(~400MB):

sudo apt-get  remove --purge wolfram-engine

Do the same for LibreOffice:

sudo apt-get remove --purge libreoffice*

Remove Desktop packages:

sudo apt-get remove --purge desktop-base lightdm lxappearance lxde-common lxde-icon-theme lxinput lxpanel lxpolkit lxrandr lxsession-edit lxshortcut lxtask lxterminal

Remove X packages:

sudo apt-get remove --purge obconf openbox raspberrypi-artwork xarchiver xinit xserver-xorg xserver-xorg-video-fbdev x11-utils x11-common x11-session utils

Clean up extra packages no longer required:

sudo apt-get autoremove –purge


Raspberry Pi 3

Disable WiFi & Bluetooth

Preferred Way:

sudo nano /boot/config.txt

At the bottom of this file add:

dtoverlay=pi3-disable-wifi
dtoverlay=pi3-disable-bt

Alternative Way:

sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/raspi-blacklist.conf
#wifi
blacklist brcmfmac
blacklist brcmutil
#bt
blacklist btbcm
blacklist hci_uart

FFMPEG

Source: jeffreythompson.org

  • INSTALL H264 SUPPORT
cd /usr/src
git clone git://git.videolan.org/x264
cd x264
./configure --host=arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi --enable-static --disable-opencl
make -j4
sudo make -j4 install
  • INSTALL FFMPEG
cd /usr/src
git clone https://github.com/FFmpeg/FFmpeg.git
cd ffmpeg
sudo ./configure --arch=armel --target-os=linux --enable-gpl --enable-libx264 --enable-nonfree
make -j4
sudo make -j4 install


Rpi Zero W

Installing Python 3.6 using BerryConda

Sources: berryconda, stackexchange.com

  • Download binary installer for armv6l installers (Raspberry Pi 1 or Zero)
wget https://github.com/jjhelmus/berryconda/releases/download/v2.0.0/Berryconda3-2.0.0-Linux-armv6l.sh
  • Installation
chmod +x Berryconda3-2.0.0-Linux-armv6l.sh
./Berryconda3-2.0.0-Linux-armv6l.sh
  • Verify installation
conda list
which python3
pip --version
  • Autorun Script using berryconda python
nano /home/pi/script.py
#!/home/pi/berryconda3/bin/python3
<script body>
chmod +x script.py
nano /etc/rc.local
/home/pi/script.py &
   Question.png     This section needs verification or testing!
  • Add Rpi channels for existing Conda installation
conda config --add channels rpi
conda install python=3.6

Headless

  • Burn fresh MicroSD Card
  • Eject SD card, and reinsert to mount:
df
cd /media/{your-username}/boot
touch ssh
  • Now create a wpa_supplicant.conf file for WiFi Config:
cd /media/{your-username}/boot
nano wpa_supplicant.conf
ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
update_config=1
country=IN
network={
    ssid="myssid"
    scan_ssid=1
    psk="mypass"
    key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
}
  • Boot up the Pi.
  • Use a terminal to connect to it over ssh:
ssh pi@raspberrypi.local

Password is:

raspberry.

Misc

  • Sound does not work with an HDMI monitor

Add the following line to the configuration file /boot/config.txt:

hdmi_drive=2
  • Using OMX Player to play audio files through CLI:
omxplayer example.mp3 1
  • By default output will be automatic (hdmi if hdmi supports audio, otherwise analogue).

You can force it with:

sudo amixer cset numid=3 <n>
where n is 0=auto, 1=headphones, 2=hdmi.
  • To find hardware info type:
cat /proc/cpuinfo       This will output information about the device’s processor.
cat /proc/version       Shows you which version of the Pi you are using
cat /proc/meminfo       Displays details about the Raspberry Pi’s memory
cat /proc/partitions    Reveals the size and number of partitions on your SD card or HDD
  • Board Temperature:
vcgencmd measure_temp
  • CPU & GPU Memory allocation:
vcgencmd get_mem arm && vcgencmd get_mem gpu
  • To find free space in the filesystem/SD Card:
df -h
df / -h
  • Other Commands:
lsusb
​free


Update Raspberry Softwares

sudo apt-get update -y && sudo apt-get upgrade -y && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade -y && sudo rpi-update && sudo apt-get autoremove -y


Updating OpenElec Major Release

  • Manual process to upgrade Openelec to next Major Release.
  • Upgrading from Gotham(v13) to Kodi(v14) have to be done manually.
  • The AutoUpdate function within OpenELEC does not support this major version
  • Select url for the correct mode in RaspberryPi Builds section
http://openelec.tv/get-openelec
  • SSH into OpenElec by using following credentials:
root:openelec
  • Download the new release tar file at following location:
cd /storage/.update/
wget http://releases.openelec.tv/OpenELEC-RPi.arm-5.0.8.tar
  • Reboot to install the update.


Accessing Raspberry Pi using Hostname

  • Install avahi:
sudo apt-get install avahi-daemon
sudo insserv avahi-daemon
  • Create a configfile for Avahi at /etc/avahi/services/multiple.service:
sudo nano /etc/avahi/services/multiple.service
<?xml version="1.0" standalone='no'?>
<!DOCTYPE service-group SYSTEM "avahi-service.dtd">
<service-group>
        <name replace-wildcards="yes">%h</name>
        <service>
                <type>_device-info._tcp</type>
                <port>0</port>
                <txt-record>model=RackMac</txt-record>
        </service>
        <service>
                <type>_ssh._tcp</type>
                <port>22</port>
        </service>
</service-group>
  • Apply the new configuration with:
sudo /etc/init.d/avahi-daemon restart
  • Access Pi from other machines:
ssh pi@raspberrypi.local
  • If you get "Name or service not known" error:
sudo nano /etc/nsswitch.conf

Edit this file & update to use below order

hosts:          files resolve [!UNAVAIL=return] mdns4_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] dns


SD Card Backup

Windows
  1. Download [Win32 Disk Imager]
  2. Insert SD card into PC & select the correct drive in Win32 Disk Imager.
  3. Click the folder icon beside it and select path to save your image.
Linux
  1. Boor Raspberry Pi & run following command:
    sudo apt-get clean
  2. Shutdown, Insert SD card into reader & Unmount the partitions.
  3. Install dcfldd
    sudo apt-get install dcfldd
  4. Start Backup:
    sudo dcfldd bs=4M if=/dev/sdb hash=sha1 hashlog=/data/sdcard.img.sha1sum | gzip -9 - > sdcard.img.gz && sudo sync
  5. Watch the progress:
    watch ls -lh *img.gz
Restoring
  1. Check the image:
    diff -sq sdcard.img.sha1sum hash.log
  2. Restore image:
gunzip -c sdcard.img.gz | sudo dcfldd bs=4M of=/dev/mmcblk0 hash=sha1 hashlog=./hash.log && sudo sync


Repair corrupt SD Card

If you get error after sudden power outage that the SD Card is corrupt but you are able to boot, the repair the SD card:

  • Find out the partitions:
df -hT
  • For all partitions run the following:
sudo fsck /dev/mmcblk0p5
  • Run the following command for the partitions with errors from above command:
sudo fsck -rV /dev/mmcblk0p5


Initial Video Troubleshooting

  • On a PC its the BIOS that allows it to immediately generate a video signal, even with no OS installed or even no storage device (hard-disk or SSD) connected. PI Does not work like this. Without flawless access to SD-card it cannot pull any code to generate video. So the first order job is to provide it with an up-to-date correctly set up SD-card from which it can draw in more software, without that the PI won't generate any kind of video signal, leaving only the ACT LED as an indicator.
  • If the ACT LED doesn't blink in an irregular pattern for at least 20/30 seconds, it means the PI cannot read from the card, and NO booting takes place!
  • B+ it is now controlled by a "brownout detector" which will switch off the LED whenever the PI receives insufficient power, new software will now show a "rainbow square" in the GUI when a brownout event is detected. Brownouts are caused by an insufficient power supply and/or by a weak microUSB cable (to long with to thin wires), and can lead to SD-card corruptions and boot problems. The model B+ has a new "undervoltage detector" that turns off the POWER OK LED when the input voltage drops below 4.6 Volt, so you can be reasonably sure, with a model B+, that with a burning POWER OK LED your power is Okay.
  • The raspberry PI (its Raspbian OS) is designed to output a HDMI signal, but if it doesn't detect a HDMI device connected it will default to generating a composite signal on 4-pins 3.5mm A/V jack. Booting NOOBS works a bit differently, as it will always output a HDMI signal, unless you press one of the numerical keys 3 (PAL) or 4 (NTSC) to switch to a composite video output mode.
  • RCA Audio-Video cable [Link]
3.5MM to Composite Audio / Video Cable
3.5mm Stereo to 3 RCA AV Cable
Model B+ RCA Cable requirements
Video 	Ground 	Right 	Left
Sleeve  Ring 2  Ring 1  Tip
4 	3 	2 	1 


Locale Error

If you are getting the following error:

perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:

Please add the following to the .bashrc file:

export LC_ALL=C


Automount USB Drive

Create Mount Point:

sudo mkdir /media/aman32/
sudo chown -R pi:pi /media/aman32/

For NTFS-3g or ExFAT:

sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g -y
sudo apt-get install exfat-utils -y

Get UUID & filesystem info:

sudo ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/
sudo blkid

Edit FSTAB:

sudo nano /etc/fstab
UUID=XXXX-XXXX  /media/aman32 vfat   uid=pi,gid=pi   0   0

If any issues, replace uid,gid with defaults- for ext4

UUID=XXXX-XXXX    /media/aman32    ext4   defaults    0   0

For NTFS, not NTFS-3g:

UUID=XXXX-XXXX    /media/aman32    ntfs   uid=pi,gid=pi    0   0
UUID=XXXX-XXXX    /media/aman32    ext4   uid=pi,gid=pi    0   0

Mount using Path:

/dev/sda1    /media/aman32    ext4   defaults    0   0

Test FSTAB file:

sudo mount -a


WiFi IP Address issue

Source: weworkweplay.com

You are unable to access your headless Raspberry Pi using WiFi if the hotspot is offline during startup or after restart of Access point later. This Script will restart the networking service enabling the connection.

sudo nano /usr/local/bin/checkwifi.sh
ping -c4 192.168.1.1 > /dev/null
if [ $? != 0 ]
then
  echo "$(date) - Restarting networking service" >> /var/log/mylogs
  sudo service networking restart
  sleep  60
fi
sudo chmod 775 /usr/local/bin/checkwifi.sh
* * * * * /usr/bin/sudo -H /usr/local/bin/checkwifi.sh >> /dev/null 2>&1


Gurbani Live Stream

Create a script file:

sudo nano /etc/init.d/gurbani

Paste the following Script:

#!/bin/sh
#/etc/init.d/gurbani
sleep 10
omxplayer http://192.69.212.61:8020/stream -o local --vol -500

Set the permissions:

sudo chmod 755 /etc/init.d/gurbani
sudo update-rc.d gurbani defaults
@reboot /etc/init.d/gurbani


Simple

while ! ping -c1 192.69.212.61 &>/dev/null; do sleep 5 ; done ; /usr/bin/omxplayer http://192.69.212.61:8020/stream -o local --vol -500

Mount HDD

Use a 5V 2A Micro USB Power Adapter

sudo nano /boot/config.txt

Add this line to the bottom of the file, it replaces the old safe_mode_gpio=4

max_usb_current=1
sudo reboot

Now check to see if the hard drive is visible

sudo blkid

Ping without sudo

Source: serverfault.com

chmod u+s $( which ping );

Reading Temperature

cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone0/temp
/opt/vc/vcgencmd measure_temp


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